Browsing Tag

conjunctions

Grammar and Usage

Conjunctive Adverbs

What are Conjunctive Adverbs?

There are three basic types of conjunctions: coordinating, subordinating, and correlative. But there is a fourth type of conjunction that we are going to talk about today. And that is the conjunctive adverb.

In today’s lesson we’ll define what conjunctive adverbs are and compare them side by side to the coordinating conjunction, the subordinating conjunction, and the correlative conjunction. We’ll look at the punctuation rules that govern conjunctive adverbs. 

Adverbs Modify Adjectives, Verbs, Adverbs, Phrases, and Clauses

You probably already know that adverbs are words that modify adjectives, verbs, other adverbs, phrases, and entire sentences. 

And conjunctive  adverbs,  also called adverbial conjunctions, connectors, connective adverbs, linkers, linking adverbs, transition words, and transitional phrases, modify entire sentences, also referred to as independent clauses. 

These types of adverbs are used  to show the logical relationship between two separate independent clauses within one sentence, to show a function between two separate ideas in sentences or paragraphs, and to act as interrupters within the sentence. And this is clearly evident with the punctuation used to set off the conjunctive adverb.

Conjunctive adverbs are used to show addition, cause and effect, comparison, contrast, emphasis, example or illustration, sequence, summary, and time.

 

Find the Conjunctive Adverbs in this Passage

There is an ongoing debate that continues to divide pet owners. Which is smarter, cats or dogs? Animal behaviorists believe that cats have the intelligence of a two-year-old human toddler. Moreover, cats have complex brains, good short-term memory, and high emotional intelligence.

Hence, cats can remember where an object is located for up to 16 hours and can respond to their human’s cues. Dogs, however, can only remember an object’s location for 5 minutes.

But does this mean that cats are smarter than dogs? Comparatively speaking, dogs are often perceived to be more intelligent because they are more trainable. This is because dogs view humans at the top of the chain of command and have formed bonds over centuries of training. Conversely, cats do not recognize hierarchies and do not see humans as their masters.

Indeed, cats are not interested in following human commands on demand. Cats want to do things on their terms. For instance, a cat will not seek help from its owner to perform a difficult task; accordingly,  they will work on the task until successful. Meanwhile, a dog will seek help from its owner when confronted with a difficult task. To summarize, cats are highly intelligent creatures, and cat lovers will tell you that their fabulous feline is clever and brilliant; however, dog lovers will say the same of their prodigious pups. Surely, this debate will not be settled any time soon.

PUNCTUATING CONJUNCTIVE ADVERBS

The way conjunctive adverbs are punctuated sets them apart from other conjunctions. This is because conjunctive adverbs may be found in different places in the clause and depending on their placement, the punctuation will differ

Conjunctive adverbs can appear at the beginning of a sentence. In the middle of the sentence, as interrupters, or at the end of the sentence.

The punctuation structure is as follows:

  • When a CA starts the sentence, place a comma after the CA

CA + comma + Independent Clause

Conversely, cats do not recognize hierarchies.

  • When a conjunctive adverb joins two independent clauses, the conjunctive adverb takes a semicolon in front of it and a comma after. 

Independent Clause + semicolon + CA + comma + Independent Clause

A cat will not seek help from its owner to perform a difficult task; accordingly,  they will work on the task until successful. 

  • You may even find the CA at the end of the sentence.

Independent clause + comma + CA

Dog lovers will probably say the same of their pets, undoubtedly. 

As a rule, the CA will be placed before the subject if starting the sentence, 

Between the subject and the first verb if interrupting the sentence

And at the end of the sentence.

Some grammar sites will tell you that transitional words or phrases are not conjunctive adverbs. And others will tell you that interrupters are not conjunctive adverbs either. Remember that with most grammar subjects, there may be disagreements among your professors, textbooks, and grammar sites. So always consult the style book or follow your teacher’s guidelines and instructions. 

Do not confuse the CA for the Subordinating conjunction or the coordinating conjunction: 

Remember that a conjunctive adverb connects independent clauses.

Cats appear aloof; however, they can be quite loving. 

Subordinating conjunctions, also known as subordinating adverbs, are used to link a dependent clause to an independent clause. 

Although cats appear aloof, they can be quite loving.

coordinating conjunctions are used to link two independent clauses with a comma. Remember the acronym FANBOYS.

Cats appear aloof, but they can be quite loving.

Be careful: COMMA SPLICE***A conjunctive adverb cannot join two independent clauses with a comma. This will create a comma splice which is a punctuation error.***

Correlative conjunctions:

Dogs are not only highly trainable but also incredibly loyal to their human.

CONCLUSION:

When you are familiar with conjunctive adverbs, your reading comprehension will improve because you will be able to recognize the logical progression of  ideas presented in the text. Consequently, by using conjunctive adverbs in your writing, you’ll be able to present a smooth flow of transitions and help your reader follow your reasoning making for a well-ordered flow of ideas.

 

File name : Common-List-of-Conjunctive-Adverbs.pdf

Grammar and Usage

Three Types of Conjunctions: Coordinate, Subordinate, and Correlative

In this lesson, you will learn about the three types of conjunctions: coordinate, subordinate, and correlative. You will learn about the acronyms FANBOYS, THAMOS, and SWABITs.

What is a Conjunction?

 

Conjunctions connect words or groups of words. Without conjunctions, your speech and your writing would sound stilted and awkward.

 

There are three main types of conjunctions: coordinate, subordinate, and correlative.

 

COORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS

A coordinate conjunction connects words or groups of words that are independent of each other.

 

Coordinating conjunctions connect words, phrases, and independent clauses.

 

There are seven main coordinating conjunctions: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, and so.

 

Hay and grain are sold here.

Will you take tea or coffee?

He was pale but undaunted.

The teacher replied courteously but firmly.

The troops embarked rapidly but without confusion.

Noon came, and the task was still unfinished.

We must hide here until night falls and the street is deserted.

 

In the first four sentences, the conjunctions and, or, and but connect single words that are in the same construction.

 

Hay and grain are sold here.

Will you take tea or coffee?

He was pale but undaunted.

The teacher replied courteously but firmly.

 

Subjects: hay and grain

Objects: tea or coffee

Predicate Adjectives: undaunted

Adverbs: firmly

Adverbial Phrase: rapidly but without confusion

Joining the two independent clauses of a compound sentence:

Noon came, and the task was still unfinished.

Compound Subordinate Clause:

We must hide here until night falls and the street is deserted.

 


Punctuation Rules for Coordinating Conjunctions:

When using a coordinating conjunction to connect two independent clauses, ALWAYS place a comma BEFORE the conjunction.

 

Examples:

We were hungry, for we hadn’t eaten in five hours.

 

(Note the comma before the conjunction because you are connecting two independent clauses.)

 

Remember the acronym FANBOYS to help you identify the most common coordinating conjunctions:

 

F = for

A = and

N = nor

B = but

O = or

Y = yet

S = so

 

Another type of coordinating conjunction is the conjunctive adverb. Conjunctive adverbs are classed as coordinating conjunctions because a conjunctive adverb joins two independent clauses, or sentences.

 

Some examples of conjunctive adverbs: however, moreover, therefore, nevertheless, notwithstanding, furthermore, and consequently.

 

Conjunctive adverbs are used mostly to show transitions from either sentence to sentence or one paragraph to another.

 

Examples

I went to the mall after work; however, I did not find what I was looking for.

 

In this example the conjunctive adverb, however, is used as a transition to coordinate two independent clauses: I went to the mall after work + I did not find what I was looking for.

 

The album sold over a million copies; moreover, it won a Grammy.

 

The punctuation rule to apply when using conjunctive adverbs to connect two complete sentences called independent or coordinate clauses is to use a semicolon to connect the two independent clauses and place a comma after the conjunctive adverb.

 

 

You may also separate the clauses into two complete sentences:

The album sold over a million copies.

Moreover, it won a Grammy.

 

This only applies when the conjunctive adverb is at the beginning of the independent clause.

 

When the conjunctive adverb appears at the beginning of a sentence, a comma should follow it.

 

I went to the mall after work. However, I did not find what I was looking for.

 

A new parking lot was built near the shopping plaza. However, the additional parking lot did not provide enough spaces to accommodate all the cars.

 

 

In these examples the conjunctive adverb appears at the beginning of the sentence and is followed by a comma.

 

Sometimes the conjunctive adverb interrupts the sentence, and you only need to set it off with commas.

 

A new parking lot was built near the shopping plaza. The additional parking lot, however, did not provide enough spaces to accommodate all the cars.

 

When the conjunctive adverb appears at the end of the sentence, a comma should precede it.

 

The additional parking lot did not provide enough spaces to accommodate all the cars, however.

 

Remember the acronym THAMOS to help you identify the most common conjunctive adverbs:

 

T = therefore

H = however

A = as a matter of fact

M = meanwhile

O = otherwise

S = still

 

More conjunctive adverbs: accordingly, also, besides, consequently, finally, indeed, instead, likewise, moreover, nevertheless, and then.

18
Created on By learningdepot

What are Conjunctions?

1 / 2

What are the three types of conjunctions?

2 / 2

The acronym for coordinating conjunctions is

Your score is

The average score is 53%

0%

 

SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS

 

A subordinate conjunction connects a subordinate clause with the clause on which it depends, the independent or main clause.

 

Subordinating conjunctions show the relationship between a dependent and an independent clause.

 

Most common subordinating conjunctions are although, though, as, as if (as though), because, if, since, that, unless, whereas, and while.

 

Punctuation rules for subordinating conjunctions

When the dependent clause is placed first in a sentence, use a comma between the two clauses.

 

Though she saw danger, Martha was not afraid.

 

If you prefer, take this seat.

 

Because it was raining, we could not go out to play.

 

The dependent clause is at the beginning of the sentence and the subordinate conjunction heads the clause.

 

When the independent clause is placed first in a sentence, do NOT use a comma between the two clauses.

 

Martha was not afraid though she saw the danger.

In this sentence, the subordinate clause is in the end so you do not place a comma before or after the subordinate conjunction.

 

Take this seat if you prefer.

Your career will be ruined unless you change your ways.

We could not go out to play because it was raining.

 

 

Remember the acronym SWABITS to help you identify the most common subordinate conjunctions:

 

S = since

W = when

A = although

B = because

I = if

T = that

S = so that

CORRELATIVE CONJUNCTIONS

 

Conjunctions that are used in pairs are called correlative conjunctions.

 

Correlative conjunctions connect two equal grammatical terms.

 

both…and

not only…but also

not only this…but also that

either…or

neither…nor

though…yet/still

although…yet/still

since…therefore

if…then

whether…or

 

Examples

 

Both lions and wolves are carnivorous.

William the Second was not only the German Emperor but also the King of Prussia.

Either brass or copper will do.

Neither Keats nor Shelley lived to be old.

She asked me whether I was American or Canadian.

Though the roads were very bad, yet he managed to reach the city before midnight.

Although he betrayed me, still I cannot believe he says he is my friend.

Since four is the square of two, therefore two is the square root of four.

If Allan’s testimony is true, then Gilbert’s must be false.

 

There are Three Types of Conjunctions: Coordinate, Subordinate, and Correlative

SUMMARY

There are three main types of conjunctions: coordinate, subordinate, and correlative.

 

Coordinate: A coordinate, or coordinating, conjunction connects words or groups of words that are independent of each other. Coordinating conjunctions connect words, phrases, and independent clauses. (FANBOYS)

 

Also, a conjunctive adverb is a type of adverb that joins two independent clauses or sentences. Conjunctive adverbs are classed as coordinating conjunctions. (THAMOS)

 

Subordinate: A subordinate, or subordinating conjunction, connects a subordinate clause with the clause on which it depends: an independent or coordinate clause. (SWABITS)

 

 

Correlative: Correlative conjunctions are two-part conjunctions. They are used in pairs and connect two equal grammatical terms. They help maintain the parallel structure of a sentence.

 

***Remember that conjunctions may change their part of speech according to their contextual place and use. A conjunction may coordinate, subordinate, and correlative depending on the context in which it is used.

 

Download the PDF of this lesson here:

File name : What-is-a-Conjunction.pdf