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Grammar and Usage

Introduction to Reducing Adverb Clauses

Reducing Adverb Clauses

We know that an adverb modifies a verb, an adjective,  or another adverb. It answers the  question of when, where, how, why, to what extent or under what conditions.

In the same manner, adverb clauses add information that elaborates on when, where, why, and how by modifying or describing verbs, adjectives or other adverbs. An adverb clause is a dependent or subordinate clause that has a relationship with the independent or main clause.  The adverb clause is referred to as the dependent clause and it connects to the independent clause with a subordinating conjunction. The subordinating conjunction establishes the relationship between the two clauses: the adverb clause and the main clause.

 

There may be times when you will want to reduce the adverb clause to an adverbial phrase. Reduced adverb clauses are mostly used in formal writing to add variety and conciseness to your sentence structure. 

When reducing adverb clauses, we must consider four things: 

  1. Both the independent clause and the adverb clause must share the same subject. 
  2. Remove the modal or auxiliary verb in the adverb clause. (There are exceptions to this.)
  3. The reduction must not alter the relationship or time frame indicated in the original sentence.
  4. You may leave the subordinating conjunction with the exception of because, since, or as.

 

EXAMPLES of Reduced Adverb Clauses

 

  1. Although the bride was nervous, she was happy to walk down the aisle.
  • The first thing you’re going to do is check the subjects in both clauses: the bride in the adverb clause and she in the main clause.
  • Remove the subject “the bride” in the adverb clause and move it over to the main clause. The pronoun “she” is ambiguous. It could be any person, but you want to make sure your reader knows it’s “the bride”. 
  • Remove the helping verb “was”. 

Reduction: Although nervous, the bride was happy to walk down the aisle.

2.  Once the cake is done, it must cool in the refrigerator.

  • Move “the cake” over to the main clause.
  • Remove the helping verb “is”.

Reduction: Once done, the cake must cool in the refrigerator.

3. Because she did not have breakfast, Minnie was hungry and tired all morning.

  • Remove the subject in the adverb clause.
  • Remove the helping verb did and the subordinate conjunction “because”.

Reduction: Not having breakfast, Minnie was hungry and tired all morning.

4. Before Dee goes to bed, she brushes her teeth.

  • Move the subject “Dee” over to the main clause. 
  • Change the verb “goes” to the present participle “going”.

Reduction: Before going to bed, Dee brushes her teeth.

 

5. While Father was mowing the lawn, he whistled a tune.

  • Move “Father” over to the main clause.
  • Remove the helping verb “was”.

While mowing the lawn, Father whistled a tune.

Caution: Beware of dangling modifiers.

6. Tom was attacked by a shark when he was swimming in the beach.

  • Tom was attacked while swimming in the beach implies that the shark is the one swimming in the beach.
  • Move the clause to the beginning.

While swimming in the beach, Tom was attacked by a shark.

 

File name : Introduction-to-Reducing-Adverb-Clauses.pdf

Grammar and Usage

Subject Verb Agreement: Basic Rules with Examples

Subject-verb agreement is for the most part fairly straight forward, but can be tricky when you have compound subjects joined by nor and or, collective nouns, indefinite pronouns, singular nouns that end in s, the pronoun none, inverted sentences beginning with here and there, and sentences interrupted by phrases. Examples are given.

Grammar and Usage

Three Types of Conjunctions: Coordinate, Subordinate, and Correlative

In this lesson, you will learn about the three types of conjunctions: coordinate, subordinate, and correlative. You will learn about the acronyms FANBOYS, THAMOS, and SWABITs.

What is a Conjunction?

 

Conjunctions connect words or groups of words. Without conjunctions, your speech and your writing would sound stilted and awkward.

 

There are three main types of conjunctions: coordinate, subordinate, and correlative.

 

COORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS

A coordinate conjunction connects words or groups of words that are independent of each other.

 

Coordinating conjunctions connect words, phrases, and independent clauses.

 

There are seven main coordinating conjunctions: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, and so.

 

Hay and grain are sold here.

Will you take tea or coffee?

He was pale but undaunted.

The teacher replied courteously but firmly.

The troops embarked rapidly but without confusion.

Noon came, and the task was still unfinished.

We must hide here until night falls and the street is deserted.

 

In the first four sentences, the conjunctions and, or, and but connect single words that are in the same construction.

 

Hay and grain are sold here.

Will you take tea or coffee?

He was pale but undaunted.

The teacher replied courteously but firmly.

 

Subjects: hay and grain

Objects: tea or coffee

Predicate Adjectives: undaunted

Adverbs: firmly

Adverbial Phrase: rapidly but without confusion

Joining the two independent clauses of a compound sentence:

Noon came, and the task was still unfinished.

Compound Subordinate Clause:

We must hide here until night falls and the street is deserted.

 


Punctuation Rules for Coordinating Conjunctions:

When using a coordinating conjunction to connect two independent clauses, ALWAYS place a comma BEFORE the conjunction.

 

Examples:

We were hungry, for we hadn’t eaten in five hours.

 

(Note the comma before the conjunction because you are connecting two independent clauses.)

 

Remember the acronym FANBOYS to help you identify the most common coordinating conjunctions:

 

F = for

A = and

N = nor

B = but

O = or

Y = yet

S = so

 

Another type of coordinating conjunction is the conjunctive adverb. Conjunctive adverbs are classed as coordinating conjunctions because a conjunctive adverb joins two independent clauses, or sentences.

 

Some examples of conjunctive adverbs: however, moreover, therefore, nevertheless, notwithstanding, furthermore, and consequently.

 

Conjunctive adverbs are used mostly to show transitions from either sentence to sentence or one paragraph to another.

 

Examples

I went to the mall after work; however, I did not find what I was looking for.

 

In this example the conjunctive adverb, however, is used as a transition to coordinate two independent clauses: I went to the mall after work + I did not find what I was looking for.

 

The album sold over a million copies; moreover, it won a Grammy.

 

The punctuation rule to apply when using conjunctive adverbs to connect two complete sentences called independent or coordinate clauses is to use a semicolon to connect the two independent clauses and place a comma after the conjunctive adverb.

 

 

You may also separate the clauses into two complete sentences:

The album sold over a million copies.

Moreover, it won a Grammy.

 

This only applies when the conjunctive adverb is at the beginning of the independent clause.

 

When the conjunctive adverb appears at the beginning of a sentence, a comma should follow it.

 

I went to the mall after work. However, I did not find what I was looking for.

 

A new parking lot was built near the shopping plaza. However, the additional parking lot did not provide enough spaces to accommodate all the cars.

 

 

In these examples the conjunctive adverb appears at the beginning of the sentence and is followed by a comma.

 

Sometimes the conjunctive adverb interrupts the sentence, and you only need to set it off with commas.

 

A new parking lot was built near the shopping plaza. The additional parking lot, however, did not provide enough spaces to accommodate all the cars.

 

When the conjunctive adverb appears at the end of the sentence, a comma should precede it.

 

The additional parking lot did not provide enough spaces to accommodate all the cars, however.

 

Remember the acronym THAMOS to help you identify the most common conjunctive adverbs:

 

T = therefore

H = however

A = as a matter of fact

M = meanwhile

O = otherwise

S = still

 

More conjunctive adverbs: accordingly, also, besides, consequently, finally, indeed, instead, likewise, moreover, nevertheless, and then.

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What are Conjunctions?

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What are the three types of conjunctions?

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The acronym for coordinating conjunctions is

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SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTIONS

 

A subordinate conjunction connects a subordinate clause with the clause on which it depends, the independent or main clause.

 

Subordinating conjunctions show the relationship between a dependent and an independent clause.

 

Most common subordinating conjunctions are although, though, as, as if (as though), because, if, since, that, unless, whereas, and while.

 

Punctuation rules for subordinating conjunctions

When the dependent clause is placed first in a sentence, use a comma between the two clauses.

 

Though she saw danger, Martha was not afraid.

 

If you prefer, take this seat.

 

Because it was raining, we could not go out to play.

 

The dependent clause is at the beginning of the sentence and the subordinate conjunction heads the clause.

 

When the independent clause is placed first in a sentence, do NOT use a comma between the two clauses.

 

Martha was not afraid though she saw the danger.

In this sentence, the subordinate clause is in the end so you do not place a comma before or after the subordinate conjunction.

 

Take this seat if you prefer.

Your career will be ruined unless you change your ways.

We could not go out to play because it was raining.

 

 

Remember the acronym SWABITS to help you identify the most common subordinate conjunctions:

 

S = since

W = when

A = although

B = because

I = if

T = that

S = so that

CORRELATIVE CONJUNCTIONS

 

Conjunctions that are used in pairs are called correlative conjunctions.

 

Correlative conjunctions connect two equal grammatical terms.

 

both…and

not only…but also

not only this…but also that

either…or

neither…nor

though…yet/still

although…yet/still

since…therefore

if…then

whether…or

 

Examples

 

Both lions and wolves are carnivorous.

William the Second was not only the German Emperor but also the King of Prussia.

Either brass or copper will do.

Neither Keats nor Shelley lived to be old.

She asked me whether I was American or Canadian.

Though the roads were very bad, yet he managed to reach the city before midnight.

Although he betrayed me, still I cannot believe he says he is my friend.

Since four is the square of two, therefore two is the square root of four.

If Allan’s testimony is true, then Gilbert’s must be false.

 

There are Three Types of Conjunctions: Coordinate, Subordinate, and Correlative

SUMMARY

There are three main types of conjunctions: coordinate, subordinate, and correlative.

 

Coordinate: A coordinate, or coordinating, conjunction connects words or groups of words that are independent of each other. Coordinating conjunctions connect words, phrases, and independent clauses. (FANBOYS)

 

Also, a conjunctive adverb is a type of adverb that joins two independent clauses or sentences. Conjunctive adverbs are classed as coordinating conjunctions. (THAMOS)

 

Subordinate: A subordinate, or subordinating conjunction, connects a subordinate clause with the clause on which it depends: an independent or coordinate clause. (SWABITS)

 

 

Correlative: Correlative conjunctions are two-part conjunctions. They are used in pairs and connect two equal grammatical terms. They help maintain the parallel structure of a sentence.

 

***Remember that conjunctions may change their part of speech according to their contextual place and use. A conjunction may coordinate, subordinate, and correlative depending on the context in which it is used.

 

Download the PDF of this lesson here:

File name : What-is-a-Conjunction.pdf

Grammar and Usage

Types of Phrases | 7 Types | English Grammar | Syntax

 

A group of words that may take the place of a part of speech is called a phrase. A phrase is a group of connected words, not containing a subject and a predicate. In other words, a phrase does not have a subject and verb. (If a group of words had a subject and a verb, it would be a clause.) Phrases can function in the sentence like nouns, adverbs, or adjectives.

7 Types of Phrases

 

Seven common types of phrases are: noun, gerund, infinitive, appositive, participial, prepositional, and absolute.

NOUN PHRASE

A phrase used as a noun is called a noun-phrase. A noun is a person place or thing, and when you add a modifier, you have a noun phrase.

 

A noun phrase can be part of the subject, the object, or a prepositional object.

 

TIP* A noun phrase can be replaced by a pronoun.

 

The Father of Waters is the Mississippi River.

 

SUBJECT: The Father of Waters is used as a noun, since it names something and can be replaced with the pronoun “it”.

 

It is the Mississippi River. (In this example the noun phrase is the subject of the sentence.)

 

My neighbor down the street baked me a pie. (SUBJECT)

 

OBJECT: Jazmin baked a chocolate cake. (A chocolate cake is the object of the verb baked and is a noun phrase.)

 

Marco replaced the worn-out furniture. (OBJECT of the verb replaced)

 

Prepositional phrase: The purse on the table belongs to my aunt. (SUBJECT w/ a preposition and includes the prepositional phrase on the table.)

 

Mikey kissed the girl with blue eyes. OBJECT w/ a preposition

 

VERB PHRASE, or VERBALS

 

A verb-phrase is a group of words that is used as a verb. A verb phrase contains both the verb and either a direct or indirect object (the verb’s dependents).

 

Verb phrases may include the verb, plus the complement, object, or adverb.

 

Verb phrases, such as “He is running toward the bus.” comprise the verb running and the complement toward the bus.

 

He is running quickly toward the bus. (Interrupted by an adverb)

 

He is running quickly toward the bus that is heading southbound.

 

VERBALS: The main types of verbals are participial, gerund, and infinitive phrases.

 

GERUND

A gerund is a verb form that functions as a noun. A gerund is easy to spot because it is a verb ending in -ing. Gerunds can be subjects, objects, or subject complements in sentences. Remember that to test any noun or part of speech functioning as a noun, we should be able to replace it with a pronoun.

 

Skiing is my favorite sport. (It is my favorite sport.)

 

INFINITIVE

An infinitive is the most common form of the verb. Infinitives can be used as nouns, adjectives, or adverbs. An infinitive will almost always begin with “to” also known as the sign of the infinitive.

 

To love unconditionally is a selfless thing.

You need to study for your finals if you want to get good grades.

 

PARTICIPIAL

A participial is a phrase that looks like a verb, but actually functions as an adjective; it modifies a noun in the same sentence.

 

Wagging her tail, my puppy greets me at the door. (adjective)

 

Sitting in the junk drawer, my glasses were pushed to the back.

 

Be careful not to confuse the participial phrase for the gerund phrase.

 

Wagging her tail is my puppy’s way of showing affection. (Gerund phrase –substitute it with IT)

 

APPOSITIVE PHRASE

An appositive is a noun or noun phrase (appositive phrase) that gives another name to the noun right next to it. An appositive phrase usually follows the word it explains or identifies

 

My puppy, a Maltese and Havanese mix, is gentle and smart.

 

PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE

A prepositional phrase is a modifying phrase consisting of a preposition and its object. It can act as an adjective or as an adverb.

 

Josie is inside the store. (verb complement)

Josie is the girl with the blue eyes. (adjective)

I will give you a call in the morning. (adverb).

ABSOLUTE PHRASE

An absolute phrase is a phrase that modifies the independent clause, but it is not connected to the sentence by a conjunction. It is set off with a comma only, and it could be removed from the sentence without changing the meaning of the sentence.

 

His feet sore, he continued his hike.

 

The baby ate the applesauce with pleasure, cooing and gurgling as she took each spoonful.

 

TO SUMMARIZE:

 

A phrase is a group of connected words THAT DO NOT CONTAIN A subject and a predicate. In other words, a phrase does not have a subject and verb. Phrases can function in the sentence like nouns, adverbs, or adjectives.

 

Seven common types of phrases are: noun, gerund, infinitive, appositive, participial, prepositional, and absolute.

 

File name : 7-Types-of-Phrases.pdf